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When to use Nextel™ 312 Fibers

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3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Textiles and Composites provide innovative solutions in industries from aerospace to petroleum refining to metal processing. The outstanding thermal protection provided by Nextel™ Fabrics, Tapes and Sleevings allows engineers and manufacturers to handle high temperature applications up to 2500°F (1371°C).
Nextel™ Ceramic Fibers 312 and 440, when converted to fabrics, tapes, sleevings, and paper are used in the aerospace, industrial, automotive, electrical and petrochemical markets as heat shields, curtains, linings, insulation, blankets and seals. Nextel™ Flame Stopping Dot Paper, engineered with Nextel™ Fiber 312, is ideal in applications where both flame barrier properties and light weight are critical.


Nextel™ Composite Fibers


The family of 3M™ Nextel™ Fibers was developed to serve a variety of needs. 3M™ Nextel™ Fibers 312, 440, and 550 are designed for non-structural applications where their primary purpose is to insulate or to act as a flame barrier.  To aid in the selection of the proper fiber for each of these different applications, the fibers are tested in a manner appropriate to their end use.


3M™ Nextel™ 312 Ceramic Fiber Typical Properties


Property

Units

3M™ Nextel™ 312

Use Temperature

2200°F

Filament Diameter

mm

 

Crystal Size

nm

<500

Crystal Type

 

9Al2O3:2B2O3
+ amorph.
SiO2

Density

g/cc

2.7

Filament Tensile Strength (51mm gage)

MPa

1700

Filament Tensile Modulus

GPa

150

Surface Area

m2/g

<.2

Composition

wt%

62 Al2O3
24 SiO2
14 B2O3

Thermal Expansion (100-1100°C)

ppm/°C

3 (25-500°C)

Dielectric Constant

(@ 9.375 Ghz)

5.2

3M™ Nextel™ Roving 312 – Typical Properties


Color: White

Roving

Nominal

Yield ± 10%

Breaking Load*

 

Filament

 

 

 

 

Count

yds/lb

m/kg

lbs

kg

600 denier (67 tex)

400

7420

14950

6

2,7

900 denier (100 tex)

400

4950

9970

7

3,2

1200 denier (133 tex)

750

3720

7490

12

5,4

1800 denier (200 tex)

750

2480

4990

14

6,4

3600 denier (400 tex)

1375

1240

2500

24

10,9

3M™ Nextel™ Plied Yarn 312 – Typical Properties


Color: White

Yarn

Ends

Diameter in mm

Yield ± 10% yds/lb             m/kg

Breaking Load* lbs         kg

600 denier (67 tex) 2.7 Twists/inch (106 Twists/m)**

1/2

2

0.007

0,18

3590

7240

14

6,4

900 denier (100 tex) 2.7 Twists/inch (106 Twists/m)**

1/2

2

0.01

0,25

2390

4820

19

8,6

1/3

3

0.014

0,36

1580

3190

29

13,2

2/2

4

0.016

0,41

1180

2380

35

15,9

1/5

5

0.019

0,48

950

1920

43

19,5

2/3

6

0.024

0,61

780

1570

53

24,0

3/4

12

0.034

0,86

390

790

99

44,9

4/5

20

0.052

1,32

230

460

150

68,0

3/8

24

0.054

1,37

195

390

160

72,6

1800 denier (200 tex) 2.7 Twists/inch (106 Twists/m)**

 1/2

2

0.016

0,41

1190

2400

32

14,5

 1/3

3

0.021

0,53

790

1590

45

20,4

 1/4

4

0.026

0,66

590

1190

63

28,6

2/2   

4

0.028

0,71

590

1190

57

25,9

 2/3

6

0.034

0,86

390

790

89

40,4

 2/5

10

0.05

1,27

230

460

150

68,0

 2/6

12

0.054

1,37

195

390

145

65,8

Note:  All yields are based upon sized rovings and yarns.  The allowable range in add-ons for sizing is 1.1 to 3.0% by weight.  The allowable tolerance on final twist is ± 30%.
*  Tested at room temperature.
**  The allowable tolerance on final twist is ± 30%.  Other twist levels available.

3M™ Nextel™ 312 Roving Strength Maximum Temperature Limit

 

Roving Strength

Fiber

Maximum

 

 Temperature Limit

Nextel™ 312

 

* Strain rate = 12.5 mm/min

Fiber Weight Loss Nextel™ 312 Ceramic Fiber Roving


Roving samples were subjected to 2192°F (1200°C) for fifteen hours. Fibers were weighed before and after the fifteen hour exposure in order to determine weight loss. The fiber evolves B2O3 at temperatures greater than 2012°F (1100°C).

Fiber Weight Loss %

312

 

Shrinkage on Nextel™ 312 Fiber


Roving samples were held at each temperature for fifteen hours. After that time they were measured for shrinkage. All fiber compositions showed less than three percent shrinkage after fifteen hours at 2372ýF (1300ýC). Fiber compositions other than Nextel™ Roving 312 showed shrinkage of less than 1.5% at these conditions.


Nextel™ Ceramic Fiber 312 Moisture Absorption


The 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Fibers 312 absorb very little moisture due to their smooth, non-porous surface. Fibers exposed to 100% relative humidity for several hours at room temperature had 0.08% weight gain.


Electrical Insulation Resistance on 3M™ Nextel™ Braided Sleeving 312 (unsized)


Insulation resistance of 3M™ Nextel™ Braids on Type K thermocouple wire was measured as the temperature was increased from ambient to over 1832°F (1000°C). With 12 inch (30,5 cm) sections exposed to the test temperature, the remainder of the 18 inch (45,7 cm) thermocouple specimen extended through the oven wall and was connected to an ohmmeter. All wires were open-ended.  A typical curve of insulation resistance as a function of temperature is shown in the figure below for thermocouple wires insulated with unsized yarn.  The values of insulation resistance will change depending on thickness, length of thermocouple wire and braid construction.


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IR Absorbance and Transmittance 3M™  Nextel™ Ceramic Fiber 312


A small flake of alumina-boria-silica (3:1:2) fired to 1742 F (950 C) was used to  determine the transmittance and absorbance of 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Fiber 312 in the infrared region. The thickness of the flake was determined from the interference pattern to be 22.4 m thick. The following graph shows that in the shortwave number region (4000-3000 cm-1) the transmission loss is small and appears essentially due to reflection. Weak absorption shows between 2700 and 1700 cm-1. Beyond 1700 cm-1 absorption becomes strong and finally complete beyond 1400 cm-1. Absorbance can be calculated from the relationship A=log10 (100)/(%T).


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Cryogenic Testing on 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Tape 312


Five samples of 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Tape 312 1 inch (2,54 cm) wide were cut to 6 inch (15,2 cm) lengths for testing in liquid nitrogen.
Samples were heat cleaned at 1472degF (800degC) for one hour to remove the sizing before testing.
Samples were placed in liquid nitrogen to soak for three minutes. Samples were then removed and tested for strength retention.
A second set of five samples was dipped into liquid nitrogen ten times and then tested for strength retention.

 

Retained Strength

Sample

Soaked 3 Minutes in N2

Dipped 10 Times in N2

3M™ Nextel™ Tape 312

127%

81%

 

Radiation Resistance & Microwave Measurement - 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Fiber 312 Radiation Resistance


Exposure to radiation from a Cobalt 60 source did no noticeable damage to the 3M™ Nextel™ Fiber 312. A total of 1 x 107 rads at an exposure rate of 2.1 x 10 5 rads/hour did not change the tensile strength of the fibers, yarns or fabrics made from the fibers.

Microwave Measurements


Power Transmission and Reflection for 3M™ Nextel™ Fabric panels 18 inch x 18 inch (45.7 cm x 45.7 cm) at 10 GHz.

Fabric

Transmission*

Reflection**

Transmission*

Reflection**

Specimen

5

10

5

10

 

Layers

Layers

Layers

Layers

AF-30

96.50%

97.80%

7%

0.45%

BF-30

94.70%

96.70%

7%

0.14%

*Sample held with styrofoam panels, angles of incidence 0°.
**Sample uncompressed, angle of incidence 10°. Compared to copper plate with perpendicular polarization.

3M™ Nextel™ Woven Fabric 312 – Thermal Optical Properties*


The optical properties of fibers on the exterior of the space craft controls the amount of solar heating that will occur in orbit. For instance, a low absorptivity would be desired if one were designing components for a spacecraft mission. This would reflect most of the sun’s energy and protect the craft and the instruments from high temperatures.
Optical measurements were made on 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Fabrics 312 using a Gler Dunkle DB-100 Emissometer and MS-251 Solar Reflectometer machines. The average absorptance () and emittance () are as follows:

Material

Absorptivity

Emissivity

312

0.14

0.88

NASA Nonmetallic Material Testing*


Flammability, Toxicity and Thermal Vacuum Stability testing on 3M™ Nextel™ Woven Fabrics was performed using procedures specified in NHB 8060.1B and SP-R-0022A.
Flammability: Passed test in 30% oxygen and 10 psia environment.
Toxicity: Passed Test.
Thermal Vacuum Stability: Heat cleaned fabric passed test. Sized 3M™ Nextel™ Fabric outgassed volatile condensable materials of 0.15%, which exceeded the required limit of 0.1 weight %.
*Courtesy-NASA


Back to 3M™ Nextel™ Overview

Further information on 3M™ Nextel™ 312 Ceramic Textiles

Further information on other 3M™ Nextel™ Ceramic Textiles

 

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